The basic types of running shoes are:
Trainers - These heavy and sturdy shoes are lined with extra layers of padding to ensure protection of your feet from impact injuries. They are durable and quite handy for everyday use. Their basic purpose is to enhance the comfort of the runner and ensure that their feet are protected from sprains especially those who put too much stress on the feet while running. Lighter models are also available that although don’t offer the same amount of protection but also don’t stress out your feet resulting in minimum fatigue. They might be a better choice for those who have a proper running style.
Cross Trainers - These are designed keeping one specific factor in mind. These shoes provide the essential grip and traction which are quite necessary in all sorts of running activities. Wider base with enhanced surface area which leads to maximum contact with the ground makes sure that you can focus on the game without worrying about slipping or sliding on the turf. Cross trainers are more adept at tackling issues that involve sudden twists and turns during the activity rather than a straight sprint. They are designed to keep your ankles safe from muscular and impact injuries.
Trail Runners - These are sometimes thought of as variants of the cross trainers. Basically they offer the same features and specialize in ankle protection. These shoes are compatible in all sorts of conditions and give you a certain feel of safety and well-being
Racing Shoes - These shoes have a number of variants available; each designed keeping a specific terrain in mind. The striking feature of racing shoes is that they are quite lightweight. So basically they are built for speed. If you want to get the best out of yourself then racers might be your best bet. Racers also come with attached spikes which improve the grip and traction attributes of the shoe. Keep in mind that spikes work well only on soft and natural surfaces like grass, dirt and rubber etc. Never use them on concrete or asphalt tracks.
Walking Shoes - These shoes cover almost all the activities apart from running. Running and walking are quite different altogether. You are more concerned with comfort and support in the case of walking rather than grip and protection which is the case for running. Use of these shoes on stony and rocky terrains is discouraged.